What is Computer? – Definition, Types, Features, and Parts [2022]

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

What is Computer? A computer is a device that uses instructions to calculate data, store information, and manage it. Hardware and software make up computers. The word “computer” comes from the Latin word “computare,” which means “to compute.” It refers to the act of calculating or calculating.

Most people believe that a computer is a desktop or laptop computer. There are numerous types of computers available. Calculators, microwaves, digital cameras, and other devices that we don’t think of as computers are frequently used as computers.

Friends, today’s world is becoming more digital, and the usage of computers is expanding every day. Whether it’s in a school, a college, or a government office, computers are in full swing everywhere.

Imagine that you can sit at home in any part of the world and use the Internet to communicate with people nearby, that you can watch any program on television you choose, that you can make money from your card anywhere with a simple swipe, and that you now have to go shopping. You don’t even need to leave your house to do it. As a result, such facilities have become possible; nevertheless, no one knows how much more impossible will become possible in the future.

Perhaps you’ve figured out that we’re not talking about a gadget, but rather What is Computer? This information will be provided by you. If you’re a student or want to learn how to use a computer, this article will definitely help you. But first, let’s get a grasp on what it means.

What is the Full Form of a Computer 

CCommonly
OOperated
MMachine
PParticularly
UUsed
TTechnical
EEducational
RResearch

What is Computer?

A computer is an electronic device that processes data entered by the user and outputs information as a consequence; in other words, a computer is an electronic machine that executes the user’s commands. It can store, retrieve, and process information. A computer can be used to type documents, send emails, play games, and search the internet. It’s also capable of producing spreadsheets, presentations, and even films.

“The computer processes the data entered by the user and outputs the result.”

“The Output Results of the Data Input Process by Computer User are supplied as “

The word “computer” comes from the English word “COMPUTE,” which means “to compute.” As a result, it is apparent that the computer is directly related to the calculating equipment; nevertheless, its current scope has expanded significantly, and it is no longer restricted to calculating.

Because of its large storage capacity, speed, automation, capacity, precision, versatility, and reliability, it has the ability to remember our lives. In every field, it is becoming increasingly crucial.

Computers are capable of quickly processing both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations. The computer executes programs that have previously been written, and it has its own memory in which data, programs, process results, and other information are saved.

Input

Input refers to the process of entering raw data into a computer via an input device. It could be in the form of a letter, a photograph, or even a video.

Process

The computer does processing based on data (instructions) provided by the user. This task is carried out by the Central Processing Unit (CPU). It takes the data that the user enters and transforms it into useful information. This processing unit is commonly referred to as the computer’s brain.

Output

The computer delivers the input data to the output device after processing it so that the user can see it. The output is mostly displayed on the display device (monitor). Everything you do on the computer is shown on this monitor.

Hardware

Any component of your computer with a physical structure, such as a keyboard or mouse, is referred to as hardware. It also comprises all of the computer’s internal components, as shown in the illustration below.

What is Computer? (Hardware)

Software

Any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do and how to do it is referred to as software. Web browsers, gaming, and word processors are examples of software. Both hardware and software are responsible for everything you do on your computer. For example, you are currently viewing this text in a web browser (software), and you are clicking on the page with your mouse (hardware), so the mouse is hardware.

Types Of Computer

A computer can be separated into multiple segments based on several factors such as (computer capacity, and computer size) to process data.

The computer is divided into five segments based on its size:

  1. Micro Computer
  2. Mini Computer
  3. Mainframe Computer
  4. Supercomputer
  5. Workstations

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Micro Computer

A microcomputer is a computer that only has one user. Microcomputers are computers with lower processing speeds and storage capacities than other computer types. The CPU in this system is a microprocessor.

An 8-bit CPU was used to create the first microcomputer. Laptop computers, desktop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), tablets, and smartphones are all examples of microcomputers. Microcomputers were designed for general purposes such as browsing, searching for information, using the Internet, using Microsoft Office, and using social media.

Mini Computer

“Midrange Computers” is another name for little computers. The small computer is built in such a way that it can support a large number of users at the same time. It is a mid-size computer with a multiprocessing system capable of supporting 250 people at the same time, making it popular among small enterprises and firms. Mini computers are employed for a specific purpose in several departments within a firm, such as the admissions department of a university.

Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are extremely huge and expensive. It’s a multiuser computer that can handle thousands of users at the same time. Mainframe computers are mostly utilized by large corporations and government agencies to facilitate their work by storing and processing enormous amounts of data. Universities, banks, and insurance companies, for example, employ mainframe computers to store the data of their students, clients, and policyholders in a serial format.

Supercomputer

In comparison to other computers, supercomputers are extremely fast and extremely expensive. Supercomputers have a large storage capacity. These computers have a high processing speed and can process millions of instructions per second.

Supercomputers are employed for specific tasks and applications in engineering and scientific disciplines such as weather forecasting, space research, electronics, petroleum engineering, medicine, and many more, such as addressing large-scale numerical problems. NASA, for example, employs supercomputers to launch satellites as well as monitor and control spacecraft.

Workstations

This is a computer with only one user. Although it functions similarly to a home computer, it features a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. It falls in between a microcomputer and a minicomputer in terms of storage space and speed.

Workstations are commonly used for specialist applications including desktop publishing, software development, and engineering (CAD/CAM). Workstations are often equipped with a graphical user interface, large, high-resolution graphics panels, enough RAM, and built-in network connectivity.

A disk storage device, such as a disk drive, is standard on most workstations, however, a specific form of workstation known as a diskless workstation does not.

Different Types Of Computer

When we hear the word “computer,” the image of a personal computer is the first thing that comes to mind. Let me inform you that there are many different types of computers. It’s available in a variety of shapes and sizes. We utilize them as needed, such as an ATM for cash withdrawals, a scanner for barcode scanning, and a calculator for large calculations. All of these are distinct kinds of computers.

Desktop computers

For their homes, schools, and personal work, many individuals utilize desktop computers. They are made in such a way that they can be kept on our desks. They include components such as a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and computer case.

What is Computer?

Laptop computers

A laptop computer, often known as a laptop, is the second type of computer you are familiar with. Laptops are battery-powered computers that are lighter and more portable than desktop computers, allowing them to be used practically anywhere.

What is Computer?

Tablet computers

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

Tablet computers, often known as tablets, are portable computers that are much smaller than laptops. Tablets employ touch-sensitive screens for typing and navigation instead of a keyboard and mouse. A tablet is something like an iPad.

Servers

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

A server is a computer that distributes data via a network to other computers. When you access the Internet, for example, you are viewing something that is stored on the server. Internally, many firms utilize local file servers to store and exchange files.

Features/Characteristics Of Computer

Characteristics and features of Computer Following are -:

  1. Speed
  2. Accuracy
  3. Diligence
  4. Reliability 
  5. Storage Capability
  6. Reduction in Paperwork and Cost
  7. Automation
  8. Versatility

1. Speed 

You can walk everywhere, but you use a bicycle, scooter, or automobile to do any task faster.

You can enhance the speed of work with the help of a machine, and a computer can do any work extremely quickly.

In a matter of seconds, a computer can do millions of operations such as multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction. Alternatively, it will take 2 seconds, but the computer will be able to perform millions of such calculations in a matter of seconds.

2. Accuracy

If you’re asked to multiply ten different integers, you’ll make a lot of mistakes. However, in most cases, the computer is capable of completing any task without error.

3. Diligence

Today, a person gets tired of doing any task continuously for a few hours; on the other hand, a computer may do any work continuously for many hours, days, or months, and its ability to do work does not diminish. The correctness of the work’s outcome does not deteriorate. Regardless of whether the work is interesting or not, the computer will complete it.

4. Reliability

The computer’s memory is more powerful, the entire computer process is dependable, it does not get weary of working for years, and the store memory is accurate even after years.

5. Storage Capability

Data storage capacity in a computer system is extremely high. A computer can store millions of words in a short amount of space, as well as all forms of data, photographs, files, programs, games, and sound for years. Later, we will be able to obtain any information we require in a matter of seconds and put it to our use.

6. Reduction in Paperwork and Cost

In large corporations, computers are utilized to reduce paperwork. Many such tasks can cost more money over time if completed by employees, but having the same work completed by a computer saves both time and money.

7. Automation

We utilize a variety of automatic machines in our daily lives, and the computer is no exception. The computer does all of its tasks automatically after the program is installed.

8. Versatility

Due to its universality, the computer is rapidly gaining influence throughout the world. The computer is used to perform both mathematical and commercial tasks. Computers are employed in almost every field. For example, a bank, a railway, an airport, a business, or a school.

Disadvantages of computer

Let us now look at some of the computer’s drawbacks.

1. Virus and Hacking Attacks

A virus is a damaging program, and hacking involves illegal access to a computer that the owner is unaware of.

These infections can readily propagate to your computer via email attachments, USB drives, or other malicious websites. When it gets to your computer, though, it completely destroys it.

2. Online Cyber Crimes

These online cyber-crimes are carried out using computers and networks. Cyberstalking and identity theft are two examples of online cybercrime.

Job opportunities are decreasing

Because computers can perform multiple activities at once, there is a significant loss of employment opportunities.

As a result, all computers are given more prominence in the place of people, from the banking industry to any governmental area. As a result, unemployment continues to rise.

The other disadvantage is that it lacks intelligence, is completely reliant on the users, has no feelings, and is incapable of making decisions on its own.

Basic Parts of Computer

CPU/Processor

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

Do you understand what a Central Processing Unit (CPU) is? This is also known as. It is located on the motherboard, which is located inside the computer chassis. It’s also known as the computer’s brain. It is the process of keeping track of all computer operations. A processor’s speed determines how quickly it can process information.

Motherboard

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

Motherboard refers to the primary circuit board of a computer. It appears to be a thin plate, but it is capable of sustaining a lot of weight. Such include the CPU, RAM, hard disk and optical drive connectors, expansion cards for video and audio control, and connections to all of the computer’s ports. As can be seen, the motherboard is directly or indirectly connected to all of the computer’s components.

RAM

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. This is the system’s short-term memory. When a computer does a calculation, the result is temporarily saved in RAM. This data is also lost if the computer is switched off. If we’re composing a paper, we should save our data in between to avoid it being lost. If the data is saved on a hard disk, it can be saved for a long period.

Megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB) are the units of measurement for RAM (GB). It is beneficial for us if we have more RAM.

Power Supply Unit

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

The power supply unit’s job is to accept power from the main power source and distribute it to other components as needed.

Hard Drive

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

The hard drive is the storage device for software, documents, and other things. The data is stored for a long period in this manner.

SSD (Solid State Drive)

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

“Solid State Drive” is a term that refers to a hard drive that is made up entirely of solid It’s a form of secondary storage device, similar to hard disk drives, that can permanently store vast amounts of data.

However, unlike HDDs, SSDs do not employ mechanical elements to store data, instead of relying on semiconductor chips. That is to say, unlike HDDs, no spinning disks or mechanical arms are used to read and write data.

Expansion Card

What is Computer? - Definition, Types, Features, and Parts.

Expansion Slots are available on all computers, allowing us to add an expansion card in the future. PCI (Peripheral Components Interconnect) cards are another name for these. However, many slots are already included on today’s motherboards. These are the names of several expansion cards that can be used to upgrade older computers.

  • Video Card
  • Sound card
  • Network Card
  • Bluetooth Card (Adapter)

History of Computer

When you look at a modern computer, you will notice that it was not created by a single individual, but rather by a group of people. The history of computers, according to books, dates back many hundred years. It is incorrect to attribute the invention to a single person in such a situation.

Father Of Computer
Image from India Toady

Charles Babbage is known as the “Father of the Computer” because his computing engine, the Analytical Engine, and Difference Engine, were instrumental in the development of the modern computer.

The invention of the abacus is thought to have sparked the development of computers. Tim Cranmer came up with the idea. Following the Abacus, Napier’s Bones computer was developed, followed by Slide Rule Computers.

ComputerYearDeveloped By
Abacus2400 BCTim Cranmer 
Napier’s Bones1614John Napier
Slide Rule1622William oughtred
Pascaline1642Blaise Pascal
Stepped Reckoner1672Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Jacquard loom1801Joseph Marie Jacquard
Arithmometer1820Thomas De Colmar
Difference Engine1822Charles Babbage
Analytical Engine1834Charles Babbage
Scheutizian Calculation Engine1843Pearl George Scheutiz
Tabulating machine1890Herman Hollerith
Harvard mark 11937-1944Dr.Howard Aiken
Z11936-1938Konrad Zuse
Atanasoff-Berry Computer1939 -1942John Vincent Atanasoff And Clifford Berry
ENIAC1946John Mauchly And J. Presper Eckert
EDVAC1949Von Neumann
UNIVAC 11951J. Presper Eckert And John Mauchly
Osborne 11981Osborne Computer Corporation

Computer generation

We learn about how technology has evolved over time and how a computer that once took up a large room has evolved into something so small and powerful today thanks to the computer generation.

First Generation (1940 – 1956)

The ENIAC, created by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert in 1940, marked the beginning of the first generation of computers. In these computers, vacuum tubes were employed. They were enormous in size, and they used to take up the entirety of the room. Punch cards were used in this generation’s computers. Magnetic drums were employed for memory in this experiment. Programming was done in machine language.

Names of the first generation’s primary computers: ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, and so on.

Second Generation (1956 – 1963)

In second-generation computers, transistors replaced vacuum tubes. As a result, this generation’s computers are substantially smaller than previous generations. They were also less expensive and used less energy than the first generation. Punch cards, on the other hand, were still used to input data. In the meantime, high-level programming languages like Cobol and Fortran became popular.

Mainframe computers from the second generation include IBM 7094, CDC 1604, UNIVAC 1108, Honeywell 400, and others.

Third Generation (1964 – 1971)

The third generation of computers outperformed the preceding two generations. Because of the invention of the IC (Integrated Circuit). The use of integrated circuits (ICs) significantly decreased the size of computers. Furthermore, they now consume less electricity and produce less heat. Data is now entered using the mouse and keyboard as well. Apart from that, this generation worked on the operating system (OS), time-sharing, and numerous programming concepts.

IBM 360, ICL 2900, PDP, TDC-316, and other third-generation systems.

Fourth Generation (1971 – Present)

Fourth-generation computers employed VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuitry. Thousands of transistors and other electronic components were crammed into a single chip under this method. As a result, computers have shrunk in size while becoming more powerful, durable, and affordable. This generation also saw the birth of personal computers. Computers now support all high-level programming languages (C, C++, D Base, and so on).

DEC 10, STAR 1000, PDP 11, CRAY-1, IBM 4341, and other fourth-generation mainframe computers

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond)

The fifth generation is based mostly on ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, which allows for the integration of millions of electrical components into a single tiny microprocessor chip. Artificial intelligence, quantum computation, nanotechnology, and parallel processing are just a few of this generation’s breakthrough technologies.

Computers in the fifth generation are faster, smaller, multitasking, and more durable than previous generations. This generation’s computer interface has been made more user-friendly, and numerous new capabilities have been included.

Desktop, laptop, notebook, ultrabook, and other fifth-generation computers

Future of computer

By the way, the computer is through a lot of technological advances every day. It is becoming more inexpensive every day, as well as having increased performance and capacity. There will be further modifications as people’s needs grow. It used to be the size of a house, but now it’s absorbed into our palms.

It will come to a point when our mind will be able to control it. Scientists are currently focusing their efforts on Optical Computers, DNA Computers, Neural Computers, and Quantum Computers. Along with this, Artificial Intelligence is receiving a lot of attention in order for it to be able to perform independently.

The Internet and networking

Since the 1950s, computers have been used to coordinate information across numerous sites. The SAGE system used by the United States military was the first large-scale example of such a system, which spawned a variety of special-purpose commercial systems such as Sabre.

Computer engineers at research institutes around the United States began to connect their computers using telecommunications technologies in the 1970s. ARPA (now DARPA) financed the initiative, and the resulting computer network was known as the ARPANET. The technology enabled the Arpanet to spread and evolved.

The network eventually expanded beyond academic and military organizations and became known as the Internet. The rise of networking required a reconsideration of the computer’s essence and bounds. Computer operating systems and programs were changed to incorporate the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored data, and so on, as extensions of an individual computer’s resources.

Initially, these services were only available to those working in high-tech environments, but by the 1990s, the spread of applications such as e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of low-cost, high-speed networking technologies such as Ethernet and ADSL, had made computer networking almost ubiquitous.

In reality, the number of networked computers is rapidly increasing. A substantial percentage of personal computers connect to the Internet on a regular basis to exchange and receive information. “Wireless” networking, which frequently makes use of mobile phone networks, has resulted in networking becoming more prevalent even in mobile computing environments.

Unusual computing devices

A computer does not have to be electrical, nor does it need to have a CPU, RAM, or a hard drive. While the term “computer” is commonly used to refer to a personal electronic computer, the modern definition is: “A device that computes, especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information.” A computer is any device that processes information, especially if the processing is intentional.

Conclusion

So friends after reading this post I hope you will learn what a computer is and its features, advantages, and its History. I hope if anyone asks about computers you will definitely answer after reading this post.

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