Solidity Programming Language

Solidity Programming Language
Solidity Programming Language

Solidity is an object-oriented programming language used to build smart contracts on multiple blockchain systems, the most prominent of which being Ethereum. Christian Reitwiessner, Alex Beregszaszi, and numerous former Ethereum core developers created it. Solidity programmes run on the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

Solidity – History

Gavin Wood suggested Solidity in August 2014; the language was later developed by the Ethereum project’s Solidity team, lead by Christian Reitwiessner.

Solidity is the core language used on Ethereum and other private blockchains, such as the enterprise-focused Hyperledger Fabric blockchain. SWIFT implemented a proof-of-concept using Solidity on Hyperledger Fabric.

Solidity description

Solidity is a statically typed curly braces programming language that is used to create smart contracts that operate on the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

Smart contracts are programmes that are run inside a peer-to-peer network where no one has particular authority over the execution, allowing tokens of value, ownership, voting, and other types of logic to be implemented. When deploying contracts, be sure to utilise the most recent Solidity release. This is due to the frequency with which breaking updates, new features, and bug fixes are delivered.

0.x version numbers are now used to signify the rapid speed of change.

Solidity was initially publicly previewed in November 2014 at Devcon0. On July 8, 2020, Solidity v0.1.0 will turn 5 years old. More information regarding Solidity’s history may be found here.

Solidity is an open-source, community-driven project overseen by a core team. The Ethereum Foundation funds the core staff.

Solidity software example:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0
pragma solidity ^0.8.4;

contract Coin {
    // The keyword "public" makes variables
    // accessible from other contracts
    address public minter;
    mapping (address => uint) public balances;

    // Events allow clients to react to specific
    // contract changes you declare
    event Sent(address from, address to, uint amount);

    // Constructor code is only run when the contract
    // is created
    constructor() {
        minter = msg.sender;
    }

    // Sends an amount of newly created coins to an address
    // Can only be called by the contract creator
    function mint(address receiver, uint amount) public {
        require(msg.sender == minter);
        balances[receiver] += amount;
    }

    // Errors allow you to provide information about
    // why an operation failed. They are returned
    // to the caller of the function.
    error InsufficientBalance(uint requested, uint available);

    // Sends an amount of existing coins
    // from any caller to an address
    function send(address receiver, uint amount) public {
        if (amount > balances[msg.sender])
            revert InsufficientBalance({
                requested: amount,
                available: balances[msg.sender]
            });

        balances[msg.sender] -= amount;
        balances[receiver] += amount;
        emit Sent(msg.sender, receiver, amount);
    }
}

The Benefits of Solidity Programming

Apart from the basic functionality of Solidity Programming, there are several more aspects that give it an advantage over other Ethereum-based languages.

  • Solidity programming supports sophisticated data types and member variables in addition to fundamental data types.
  • It supports type safety by providing an Application Binary Interface (ABI). The ABI raises an error if the compiler identifies a data type mismatch for any variable.
  • It refers to the ‘Natural Language Specification,’ which is used to convert user-centric requirements into machine-readable language.

Solidity’s Limitations

Unlike traditional programming languages, where programmes may be debugged, Solidity contracts cannot be altered or corrected, and transactions cannot be reversed. Solidity adheres to the “Code is Law” ethos, which means that every smart contract that goes into force must be flawlessly coded.

There have been several hacking incidents, including as the aforementioned 2016 DAO attack, which resulted in the theft of US$60 million, and a 2021 hack that created a fork in the Ethereum system.

Coinbase, the largest cryptocurrency exchange in the United States, has released a new tool called Solidify to help eliminate technical faults and mishaps. This tool is an artificial intelligence auditing system that discovers and categorises smart contract risks.

Platform availability for development

  • AWS’s ErisDB
  • Hardhat
  • Visual Studio by Microsoft
  • Visual Studio Code by Microsoft
  • Tendermint is available on Microsoft Azure.
  • Ethereum Remix

Platforms for blockchain

Solidity may be found on:

  • Ethereum
  • Smart Chain Binance
  • Classic Ethereum
  • C-Chain Avalanche
  • Counterparty (which runs on Bitcoin)
  • Tron
  • Hashgraph of Hedera

Solidity Programming Data Types

It supports all of the commonly used data types seen in other OOP languages, such as,

  • Boolean – Depending on the status of the condition, the Boolean data type returns ‘1’ when the condition is true and ‘0’ when it is false.
  • In Solidity, you may sign or unsign integer numbers. It also supports runtime exceptions and the keywords ‘uint8’ and ‘uint256’.
  • Strings can be represented by single or double quotations.
  • Array – Solidity programming syntax is similar to those of other OOP languages, and it supports both single and multidimensional arrays.
  • Modifier – Before running smart contract code, a modifier often ensures that any condition is reasonable.

In addition, Solidity programming allows you to “Map” data structures using enums, operators, and hash values to return values stored in particular storage locations.

Solidity is rapidly developing

Solidity, being a young language, is evolving at a quick pace. We hope to have a regular (non-breaking) release every 2-3 weeks, with two breaking releases per year. The implementation status of new features may be tracked in the Solidity Github project. By moving from the normal branch (‘develop’) to the ‘breaking branch,’ you may observe the forthcoming changes for the next breaking release. You may actively shape Solidity by contributing ideas and engaging in language design.

Solidity is a very new and fast expanding language.

  • Solidity is presently the fundamental language for Ethereum and other rival systems, such as Monax and its Hyperledger Burrow blockchain, which utilises Tendermint for consensus.
  • SWIFT has developed a proof-of-concept application that runs on Burrow and using Solidity.

How to Run the Code

A Solidity Program can be carried out in two ways:

  • Offline Mode
  • Online Mode
Offline Mode

To run a Solidity smart contract in Offline mode, three requirements must be met and four important acts must be taken:

Conditions

  • Node.js must be downloaded and installed.
  • Truffle should be installed worldwide.
  • Install the ganache-cli package.

Actions

  • Create a truffle project and connect it to a development network.
  • Create and implement a smart contract for it.
  • Interact with the smart contract via the Truffle console.
  • Create tests to analyse the main features of Solidity.
Online Mode

The Remix IDE is primarily used in the Online Mode to compile and run Solidity smart contracts.

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