Is JavaScript a scripting or a programming language?

Is JavaScript a scripting or a programming language
Is JavaScript a scripting or a programming language

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript, sometimes known as JS, is a computer language that, together with HTML and CSS, is one of the essential technologies of the World Wide Web. As of 2022, 98% of websites employ JavaScript on the client side for webpage functionality, with third-party libraries frequently incorporated. All major web browsers have a JavaScript engine that executes code on users’ devices.

JavaScript is an ECMAScript-compliant high-level, typically just-in-time compiled language. It supports dynamic typing, prototype-based object-oriented programming, and first-class functions. It supports event-driven, functional, and imperative programming approaches and is multi-paradigm. It supports text, dates, regular expressions, standard data structures, and the Document Object Model via application programming interfaces (APIs) (DOM).

The ECMAScript standard does not contain any input/output (I/O) capabilities like as networking, storage, or graphics. In reality, JavaScript APIs for I/O are provided by the web browser or another runtime system.

Originally used solely in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now essential components of some servers and a wide range of applications. Node.js is the most popular runtime system for this purpose.

Although the names, syntax, and standard libraries of Java and JavaScript are similar, the two languages are separate and differ substantially in design.

JavaScript definition: What is a scripting language, and difference between Java and JavaScript?

JavaScript, as the name suggests, is a scripting language. Traditional programming languages, such as C++, are compiled before being executed into executable binary form, with the compiler evaluating the whole programme for faults before the process is complete.

In contrast, scripting languages are run one line at a time by another software known as an interpreter. Scripting languages began as a basic set of shell commands used to execute other programmes, but their flexibility and convenience of use propelled them to prominence as a form of programming language in their own right, especially with the emergence of the Web.

JavaScript emerged in the early days of the Web, which explains the rather odd Java component of its name. Netscape had recently negotiated a contract with Sun Microsystems to become the first licensee of Sun’s Java language, obtaining the ability to execute Java applets in the pioneering and dominating Netscape Navigator Web browser at the time. However, others inside the firm argued that Navigator should also enable a more lightweight scripting language. At the time, Netscape employee Brendan Eich explained:

“There were many who said that Java is good for component programmers, but there’s a far bigger audience of individuals who create scripts or copy a script from someone else and change it.” These individuals are less specialised and may be compensated to do anything other than programming, such as network administration, and create scripts part-time or on the side. If they’re developing little amounts of code, they just want to get it done as quickly as possible.”

Eich was foresighted: Java applets never took off, but the scripting language he built (fast) for Netscape is now the foundation of interactive webpages. Originally known as LiveScript, the language was built with syntax that was superficially similar to Java in many aspects in order to tap into the Java development community, despite the fact that the two languages have no direct link.

Nonetheless, because Netscape already had a partnership with Sun, the language was renamed as JavaScript and promoted by the two firms as a “complement” to the Java language shortly before its debut.

Because “Java” remained a Sun trademark that only Netscape had a licence to use, the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) released a standard defining the language that anybody may implement independently of Netscape in 1997; this standardised version was named “ECMAScript.”

Microsoft refers to the version of JScript that it used in Internet Explorer as “JScript.” These designations, however, have long since fallen out of usage, although ECMAScript retains the official name of the standard, which has been changed multiple times over the years to keep up with greater processing power and Internet speed. In practise, the language is referred to as JavaScript by everyone.

Technically, only the Mozilla Foundation (which bought Netscape’s intellectual property in 2003) has legal permission from Oracle (who acquired Sun in 2010) to use the Java trademark, although Oracle has made no effort to prevent the term from being used universally.

Scripting language:

  1. A scripting language is one that employs a simple mechanism to introduce code to a runtime environment.
  2. These are designed for a specific runtime environment.
  3. They are employed in the development of dynamic web applications.
  4. Various libraries are included with scripting languages.
  5. Bash, Ruby, and Python are some examples.
  6. Scripting languages are easily portable between operating systems.
  7. These languages need the presence of a host.
  8. Don’t make an.exe file.
  9. The majority of scripting languages are interpreted languages.
  10. Scripting languages are all programming languages.

Programming Language:

  1. A programming language is a language that people use to navigate their interactions with computers.
  2. There are three types of programming languages:
    1. Language for low-level programming.
    2. Language for middle-level programming.
    3. Language for high-level programming.
  3. Computer programmes are written using programming languages.
  4. They are fast-paced languages.
  5. C++, Java, and PHP are a few examples.
  6. Programming languages are non-translatable languages.
  7. These languages are self-contained.
  8. These produce.exe files.
  9. The majority of programming languages are compiled.
  10. Scripting languages do not exist in all programming languages.

Which JavaScript implementations are there?

Two JavaScript implementations are provided by the Mozilla project. Brendan Eich at Netscape wrote the initial JavaScript, which has subsequently been upgraded to comply to ECMA-262 Edition 5 and later versions. This engine, dubbed SpiderMonkey, is written in C/C++. The Rhino engine is a JavaScript implementation built in Java, principally by Norris Boyd (also at Netscape). Rhino, like SpiderMonkey, is ECMA-262 Edition 5 compatible.

Over time, the SpiderMonkey JavaScript engine received several substantial runtime improvements, including TraceMonkey (Firefox 3.5), JägerMonkey (Firefox 4), and IonMonkey. Work to increase JavaScript execution performance is always ongoing.

Other prominent JavaScript engines than the ones listed above include:

V8, which is used in Google Chrome and current versions of the Opera browser. Node.js also makes use of this engine.

Some WebKit browsers, such as Apple Safari, employ the JavaScriptCore (SquirrelFish/Nitro) library.

Carakan in previous versions of Opera

The Internet Explorer Chakra engine (although the language it implements is formally called “JScript” in order to avoid trademark issues).

Each of Mozilla’s JavaScript engines exposes a public API that software developers may use to incorporate JavaScript into their applications. Web browsers are by far the most frequent host environment for JavaScript. Web browsers commonly utilise the public API to generate host objects that are in charge of displaying the DOM in JavaScript.

JavaScript is also commonly used as a (Web) server side scripting language. A JavaScript web server would provide host objects representing an HTTP request and response objects, which a JavaScript programme could then modify to dynamically produce web pages. Node.js is a well-known example of this.

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